News Flash

Organizational Development and Change

Change has become a way of life for most organization. Pressure from increasing competition, globalization, technological development, and other form has created are environment and rewards organization that are capable of identifying trends and issues and responding quickly to them. To best enable organizations to enable and manage change is organization development (OD).

Organization development (OD) – organizational development is a process used to enhance both effectiveness of an organization and well-being of its members through planned intervention.

1. Types of intervention: Human Processual

  •   Survey Feedback
  •  Team Building


2. Types of intervention: Technostructural

  • Job Enlargement
  • Job Enrichment
  • Alternative Work Schedules


3. Types of Interventions: Sociotechnical Systems

  • Quality Circle (QC)
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
  • Self-Managing Teams

4. Types of Interventions: Organizational Transformation

  • Cultural Interventions
  • Strategic Changes
  • Becoming a Learning Organization


Survey Feedback

When using survey feedback as an intervention strategy, it is important for change agent to be clear on 1) what organizational variables they are trying to measure 2) how the survey will be designed and implemented, and 3) how best to present the survey results to the intended audience.


Team building is a process used to improve a work group’s problem-solving ability and effectiveness. When a group becomes dysfunctional, relationships are strained, conflicts increase among the members, group output declines, and members more likely to quite. A team-building intervention can be used to address some of these problems.

Job Enlargement

Job enlargement interventions are “attempts to increase satisfaction and performance by consolidating, work functions from a ‘horizontal slice’ of the work until to provide greater variety and a sense of the whole task.”

Job Enrichment

Job enrichment involves varying some aspect of the job in order to increase the potential to motivate workers. Job Characteristics Model (JCM) is based on the premise that jobs have five core dimensions (i.e., skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback). Job diagnostic survey (JDS), a self-report instrument, to measure workers’ perception of each core job dimension.

Alternative Work Schedules

Alternative work schedules (AWS) allow employees to modify their work requirements to satisfy their personal needs. The two most common AWS interventions are the compressed workweek and flextime.

Quality Circles

The quality circle (QC) approach is a process of involving employees in meaningful work decisions including but not limited to, solving job-related problems. The common characteristic of QC is that participants receive training in group process, diagnosing problems, and problem-solving skills. Group leaders will generally be given additional training in group facilitation. And another characteristic is that each circle meets on a regular basis to discuss issues like improvement of the work procedures and product quality, working conditions, and facilities. Priority is usually given to problems in the work area of that QC, or under the direct control of the circle leader, or both.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Most TQM intervention strategies involves five basic components – total commitment from top management, quality standards and measures, training for employees, communication, and reward, recognition, and celebration – TQM seeks to make every employee responsible for continuous quality improvement it usually involves a significant change in the way employees do their work.

Self-Managing Teams

Self managing teams (SMTs) are formal groups in which the group members and interdependent and can have the authority to regulate the teams activities. SMTs have some common characteristics; including the following:

  • There is an interdependent relationship between members of the team
  • Members have discretion over such things as work assignment, work methods, work schedules, training, and dealing with external customers and suppliers
  • Team members have a variety of skills that allow them to perform several tasks
  • The team receives performance feedback


These characteristics represent a significant change over traditional supervisor led work teams.


Cultural Intervention

Organizational cultural interventions involves more than simply restating values, beliefs, or norms, and communicating them the individual, cultural change involve a complex process of replacing an existing way of thinking with another. The organization would take on new set of values (as espoused in the vision and mission) that will affect how individual worker relate to others, both in and outside their work setting.


Strategic Changes

System wide changes can be perceived as having three dimensions – size, depth, pervasiveness. The size of change refers to the number of employees affected by the change. The depth of change refers to the  extend to which the change involves limited structural changes or goes to core values of the organization. The pervasiveness of the change refers to how many functions and hierarchical levels of the organization will be directly impact by change. Strategic intervention may be necessary when are organization is faced with external pressures to change and adapt.

Becoming a Learning Organization

A learning organization is an organization in which “everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling organization to continuously experiment, improve, and increase its capability.” Learning can occur on at least there different levels:

  • Single-Loop Learning
  • Double-Loop Learning
  • Deuterolearning


High Performance Work Systems

The high performance work system (HPWs) is another approach that has emerged from experiences of companies involved in continuous improvement. HPWs intervention strategies have some common characteristics, including “self-managed teams, quality circle, flatter organizational structures, new flexible technologies, innovative compensation schemes, increased training, and continuous improvement.”

Organizational Transformation (OT) Change

The key to successful OT intervention is the articulation of organizational vision that provides the guiding beliefs and principles (organizational cultures), explains the purpose of the organization (mission), and defines how the organization should fulfill its mission (strategy).

Skills and Technical Training

Organization have become increasing dependent on skilled technical and professional employees, and this trend is expected to continue. The trend can be traced to changes in the workplace. These changes include the need for more cognitive skills. (e.g., problem-solving and decision making skills) and greater interpersonal skills (e.g., teamwork). Whether the changes result from plant modernization, computerization, or other innovation, they have helped create a shift away from jobs requiring low skill levels to jobs demanding higher skill levels.

  • Technical Skill/Knowledge Training
  • Interpersonal Skills Training
  • Joint Training Programs
  • Company-Sponsored Continuing Education


Technical Skill/Knowledge Training

When organizations introduce new technology (e.g., by modernizing plants or computerizing operations), they need to update the skills of workers who must use it. Organizations often do this through job-specific technical skills/knowledge training programs.


Safety Training

It is estimated that 83 percent of organizations conduct some form of safety training. The need for such training has increased dramatically since the passage of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). Three of the most common metrics to portray the safety status of a site are:

  • Lost Work Day Index (LWDI) – number of workdays missed due to personal injury per 100 employees, divided by total number of employees x 100.
  • OSHA recordable rate – number of OSHA recordables/200,000 hours (the hours that 100 employees work with forty-four weeks, and fifty – weeks a year).
  • Lost time rate – number of lost time accidents/200,000 hrs.

There are ten steps toward an effective safety program.

Some practical guidelines for safety training characteristics of program include

  • Top management support and reinforcement of safety standards
  • Employee involvement in suggesting safer work procedures and the selection of equipment
  • Regular and recurring safety training programs that reinforce safety standards and behaviors
  • Effective monitoring systems to ensure standards and behaviors are being practiced and to correct any unsafe conditions


On-site training can focus on actual safety standards and behaviors on-site safety observation (OSO) are a way for organizations to take a protective approach to improve their safety training efforts.

Quality Training

One of the keys to successful TQM programs is quality training. The industry report by training estimated that 82 percent of organizations provide training in quality and process improvement.

Quality can be defined from many perspective, including product quality, service quality, and customer quality. There are 8 major areas of concern for quality improvement efforts. Seven basic quality tools are 1) process flow analysis, 2) cause-and-effect diagram, 3) run chart, 4) Statistical Process Control (SPC), 5) scatter gram, 6) histogram, and 7) pareto chart.

TQM generally involves more in-depth training in process skills, and quality skills. Process skills refer to ways to improve work coordination, solve problems, and resolve conflicts. Quality skills refers to the techniques and tools that can be used for tracking quality improvements.